Application of wave optics

02.11.2021 9:26

Application of wave optics



Interferometry is the technique that uses the concept of superimposed waves in order to extract information about the waves. In a simpler form, it used the concept of interference these waves tend to make accurate measurements of the waves. It has a wide range of applications in different branches of science such as engineering, physics, astronomy, oceanography, and fiber optics.


Some very famous application of interferometry technique includes the change in refractive index, , measurement of small changes, and surface irregularities. When two waves with the same frequency meet, the resulting pattern is determined by the phase difference between the two. Constructive interference makes its way when the waves are in phase, and on the other hand, when the waves are out of phase then destructive interference takes place. The principle of a combination of waves is used in Interferometry and the resulting waveform to obtain information about the original state of the waves. Precision optics manufacturers are selected from the list of best optical lenses manufacturer to manufacture custom lens from optical prism manufacturing.


The Michelson Interferometer


Michelson Interferometer is one of the most common tools in the interferometer and Albert Abraham Michelson was the one who invented it. The interferometer works on a simple process in which it divides a beam of light into two paths, makes both of them bounce back, and then recombines them in order to create an interference pattern. The paths to form the interference fringe on the detector may be of different lengths or may be made of different materials.


The fringes used in Michelson Interferometer are Monochromatic and colored Fringes: (a) White light fringes where the two beams have a difference in the number of phase inversions; (b) White light fringes where there is an equal number of phase inversions in both the beams; and (c) Fringe pattern which uses monochromatic light.




The Michelson Interferometer has been used in order to detect the gravitational waves, as the base of Fourier Transform spectroscopy, and as a tunable narrow-band filter. It has played a vital role in the analysis and research of the upper atmosphere, temperature, and winds (employing both space-borne and ground-based instruments) by measuring the Doppler width and changes in the spectra of airglow and aurora. The Michelson-Morley experiment is till now one of the best applications of the Michelson Interferometer. This experiment was not successful, and this experiment was performed to explain the effect of the hypothetical “Aether wind” on the speed of light.

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